This study noted no increase in clinically important medically attended events during the 2 weeks after IIV administration compared with control periods 2—4 weeks before and after vaccination. Several diagnoses, including acute upper respiratory illness, otitis media and asthma, were significantly less common during the 2 weeks after influenza vaccination.
Persons at increased risk for influenza-related complications include those age 50 years or older; residents of extended-care facilities or long-term care facilities that house persons of any age who have chronic medical conditions; adults and children who have required regular medical follow-up or hospitalization during the previous year because of chronic metabolic diseases including diabetes mellitusrenal dysfunction, hemoglobinopathies, or immunosuppression; children and teenagers ages 6 months to 18 years who are receiving long-term aspirin therapy and therefore may be at risk for developing Reye syndrome after influenza; and pregnant women.
In addition, influenza vaccine should be offered to persons who live with or care for persons with certain chronic medical conditions. Influenza vaccine is also recommended for all HCP because, when they are clinically or subclinically infected, they can transmit influenza virus to people at high risk.
In a recent study, Voirin and colleagues assessed the risk of influenza transmission in an acute care geriatric unit in an academic hospital by collecting high-resolution contact data via wearable sensors combined with virological data. Voirin and associates documented three patient- and one nurse-acquired laboratory-confirmed influenza cases and concluded that infectious medical doctors and nurses are potential sources of hospital-acquired influenza for patients.
In addition, infectious patients were identified as likely sources for nurses. Current influenza vaccines may be trivalent i. Although the administration of thimerosal in vaccines has not been demonstrated to result in patient harm, some patients especially pregnant women remain concerned about receiving vaccine containing this preservative.
Administration of vaccines whose vial or syringe contain latex could precipitate anaphylaxis in persons with latex allergies. Both thimerosal and latex-free influenza vaccines are available.
RIIV3 is the only vaccine that is completely free of egg proteins. The CDC does not list any vaccine as being preferential.
Importantly, HCP should not receive the attenuated live influenza virus vaccine if they have close contact with severely immunosuppressed persons e.
If they receive the vaccine, they should refrain from contact with severely immunosuppressed patients for 7 days after vaccine receipt.
Chemoprophylaxis with an antiviral drug amantadine, rimantadine, zanamivir, oseltamivir has been used as both seasonal preexposure and postexposure prophylaxis to reduce the likelihood of developing influenza A amantadine, rimantadine or influenza A and B zanamivir, oseltamivir infection.
Amantadine and rimantadine are no longer recommended for either prophylaxis or treatment of viral influenza because of a dramatic increase in resistance that was noted in to Specific recommendations for the use of oseltamivir or zanamivir for chemoprophylaxis or treatment of influenza have been published.
Oseltamivir has been used successfully to provide chemoprophylaxis in extended-care facilities.
|WHO | Influenza||Influenza B infections account for the remaining 25 percent.|
Fewer data are available regarding the use of zanamivir. Zanamivir is associated with bronchospasm, and oseltamivir is associated with gastrointestinal upset. Use of antiviral agents for chemoprophylaxis or treatment of influenza is an adjunct but not a substitute for vaccination. Despite these recommendations, many HCP still choose not to receive the influenza vaccine.
The knowledge and attitudes of HCP to influenza immunization have been reviewed. Institutions should consider introducing innovative methods, such as provision by mobile carts on hospital wards, off-hours clinics, feedback on immunization rates to unit nursing and medical directors, and offering vaccine to medical personnel in clinics and conferences.
Only making continued employment conditional on influenza immunization unless there is a medical contraindication has succeeded in achieving high rates of influenza vaccine coverage among HCP.
The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America has recommended the following methods of improving influenza vaccine coverage of healthcare workers.Influenza is an infectious disease commonly characterized by fever, muscles aches, sore throat, headache, and fatigue. It is generally caused by one of two types of influenza virus: influenza A or influenza B.
(Influenza C causes upper respiratory tract infections in young people but is not as common as the other two types.). Currently, two types of vaccines are available in the United States—the trivalent, inactivated influenza virus (TIV) vaccine, and the live, attenuated, cold-adapted influenza virus (LAIV) vaccine (also trivalent).
Occurrence of Early Adverse Events After Vaccination Against Influenza at a Brazilian Reference Center Marta Heloísa Lopes, Melissa Mascheretti, Marilia Miranda Franco, Ricardo Vasconcelos, and Eliana Battaggia Gutierrez.
Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species. A bird-adapted strain of H5N1, called HPAI A(H5N1) for highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of type A of subtype H5N1, is the highly pathogenic causative agent of H5N1.
Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals 20, avenue Appia, Ch Geneva 27 The Vaccines In general, seasonal influenza vaccines are trivalent, containing a mixture of influenza A and B strains thought most likely to circulate in the coming season.
There are three types of inactivated vaccines - whole virus vaccines, split virus and subunit. Vaccines, Blood & Biologics. Home; A lot of the illness and death caused by the influenza virus can be prevented by a yearly influenza vaccine.
Most individuals 6 months of age and older.