Nevertheless, the rudiments of modern franchising date back to the Middle Ages when landowners made franchise-like agreements with tax collectors, who retained a percentage of the money they collected and turned the rest over. There was little growth in franchising, though, until the midth century, when it appeared in the United States for the first time.
Nevertheless, the rudiments of modern franchising date back to the Middle Ages when landowners made franchise-like agreements with tax collectors, who retained a percentage of the money they collected and turned the rest over.
There was little growth in franchising, though, until the midth century, when it appeared in the United States for the first time. One of the first successful American franchising operations was started by an enterprising druggist named John S.
Inhe concocted a beverage comprising sugar, molasses, spices, and cocaine.
Pemberton licensed selected people to bottle and sell the drink, which was an early version of what is now known as Coca-Cola. His was one of the earliest—and most successful—franchising operations in the United States.
The Singer Company implemented a franchising plan in the s to distribute its sewing machines. The operation failed, though, because the company did not earn much money even though the machines sold well.
The dealers, who had exclusive rights to their territories, absorbed most of the profits because of deep discounts. Some failed to push Singer products, so competitors were able to outsell the company.
Under the existing contract, Singer could neither withdraw rights granted to franchisees nor send in its own salaried representatives. So, the company started repurchasing the rights it had sold. The experiment proved to be a failure.
That may have been one of the first times a franchisor failed, but it was by no means the last. Still, the Singer venture did not put an end to franchising.
Other companies tried franchising in one form or another after the Singer experience. For example, several decades later, General Motors Corporation established a somewhat successful franchising operation in order to raise capital.
Perhaps the father of modern franchising, though, is Louis K. InLiggett invited a group of druggists to join a "drug cooperative. His idea was to market private label products.
Sales soared, and Rexall became a franchisor. The chain's success set a pattern for other franchisors to follow. Although many business owners did affiliate with cooperative ventures of one type or another, there was little growth in franchising until the early 20th century, and what franchising there was did not take the same form as it does today.
As the United States shifted from an agricultural to an industrial economy, manufacturers licensed individuals to sell automobiles, trucks, gasoline, beverages, and a variety of other products.A Franchise to Change Lives.
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